In spite of reductions in bus fares, the protests in Brazil have only expanded, as over one million people took to the streets in more than 100 cities throughout the entire country. This included over 100,000 in Recife, around an estimated 300,000 in Sao Paulo, thousands in Salvador, thousands in Brasilia, and hundreds of thousands in Rio de Janeiro (early counts said it could have possibly reached one million, which would rank it with the largest demonstration in the city’s history). The protests turned violent in a number of cities, as police failed to learn the lessons of earlier in the week (or really, of the 1960s) and employed the very violent tactics against peaceful demonstrators that helped the protests to balloon from last Thursday. Ultimately, police wounded hundreds throughout the country, including bystanders completely uninvolved with the demonstrations. The events of last night were so intense, and so widespread, that O Globo, the media conglomerate that includes the most-watched channel in the country, interrupted novelas and soccer games to broadcast live transmissions of the protests throughout the country, including footage of police using rubber bullets and shooting an unarmed protester who had “surrendered.” Indeed, to know the impact of rubber bullets and the inherent violence of police repression in Brazil, one only need to take a look at this photo of a journalist whom police shot during the protests to understand just how violent and awful even “non-lethal” rubber bullets are. And that’s to say nothing of the multiple photos documenting police use of pepper spray against unarmed protesters, alongside tear gas (and tear gas, and tear gas) and “sound bombs“, even as protesters made clear they were unarmed. For those interested in following the ongoing events on the ground, I strongly and highly recommend the twitter feeds of RioGringa, Kety Shapazian, Simon Romero, and Gabriel Elizondo.
As for what’s next for Brazil – it’s really difficult to say. I’ve already covered some of the historical and more recent causes of this new wave of protests. At least two things are certain, though. On the one hand, given its scale, this is the largest mass mobilization Brazil has seen in at least 21 years (since the corruption hearings that ultimately brought down former president Fernando Collor), and possibly since the push for direct elections in 1984. On the other hand, the roots of popular anger and protest are deep and varied, and addressing bus fares was not and will not be the end of the issue. No matter what is next, though, or what the outcome of these protests is, this absolutely is a major moment in Brazilian history. For the first time in a generation, the giant has indeed once again awoken.